General Education and Vocational Education in Russia
General Education focuses on the development of the rational, moral and physical characteristics of the pupils. General education comprises:
- Pre-school education
- Primary education
- Basic general education
- Secondary (complete) General Education
The standard duration of primary general education is four years, basic general education lasts for five years, and secondary (complete) general education is of two to three years. General education program consists of eleven years of studies.
General Education: Basic Curriculum
A Basic Curriculum for General Education includes various fields of study, such as Humanities with a special importance on Literature, Russian Language, Social Sciences that covers foreign languages, Russian and world History, Economics, Law, geography etc., and Physical Education; Natural Sciences with major focus on Math and Technology.
The Natural Sciences include subjects such as Physics, Biology, Ecology, Astronomy, Chemistry, etc. Each school drafts its own curriculum, establishing it upon the Basic Curriculum.
Primary General Education and Basic General Education
Primary General Education and Basic General Education are mandatory. On the completion of basic general education which is a nine-year program, students go for final examinations (the State final attestation) and if pass the final examination, are awarded the Certificate of Basic General Education (Attestat ob Osnovnom Obshchem Obrazovanii).
The Certificate makes eligible its holder to be admitted to secondary (complete) general education or to vocational education, and to a non-university level higher education.
Types of InstitutionsGeneral education is offered by the following schools:General schools:
These are ordinary schools of general education (years 1-11) and constitute to about 80% of all schools.General schools with intensive learning programs:
This type of school provides advanced teaching in specific areas such as languages, science, sports, choreography/dancing or music. These schools account for 15% of all schools and provide education at primary level, basic general education level and upper secondary level.Gymnasiums:
A gymnasium provides teaching at primary level, basic general education level and upper secondary level with focus on subjects within the humanities and account for 2% of all schools.Lyceum:
A lyceum emphasizes on scientific and technical subjects and offer education at primary level, basic general education level and upper secondary level. Lyceums make up 3% of all schools.
Students are assessed through a grading scale from one to five where; five is the highest possible score and three is the lowest passing score.Five Point Scale
WES Equivalent: A
WES Equivalent: B
WES Equivalent: C
Number: 1-2 (NA)
WES Equivalent: F
The lowest passing grade is 3 that indicate “satisfactory” (for general education) and credit for higher education.
Vocational education is the first level of professional learning that involves the training of proficient workers, generally on the strength of basic general education.
There are two types of vocational education:
- Professional Schools
- Professional Lyceum.
The first type of vocational education is offered by vocational education institutions called Professional Schools (Professionalnoe Uchilishche).
In such institutions, educational programs are targeted at the attainment of professional qualifications and primarily include subjects for specialised training. The time span of such educational programs is 1 to 2.5 years, following the completion of basic general education which is a nine-year program, or 1 to 1.5 years, following the completion of secondary (complete) general education, a eleven-year program.
After passing the State final attestation, graduates of Professional Schools are awarded Diplomas that give them the right to practice a profession and it also qualifies them for higher studies at non-university level higher education.Professional Lyceum
The second type of vocational education is provided by vocational education institutions called the Professional Lyceum (Professionalnye Litsei), wherein, educational programs include professional education as well as general education components.
After passing the State final attestation of a Professional Lyceum, students are awarded diplomas that authorize them to practice a profession and also show that they have received secondary (complete) general education. This type of diploma provides an access to university level higher education institutions to its holders.
The duration of educational programs at Professional Lyceum is 3 years, following the completion of basic general education, or 1 to 1.5 years, following the completion of Secondary (complete) General Education.